Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Adult CPR

CPR is the 1st thing you'll learn as an EMT. CPR is for cardiac arrests and stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
CPR is saving a life, but 7-8 times out of 10 the patient will not survive. CPR works best when it is done right as the patient goes down.
The CPR chain of survival
The chain of survival for adults has 5 links:
1)   Early access
2)   Early CPR
3)   Early defibrillation
4)   Early Advanced Care
5) Early post-cardiac care

Steps for Adult 1-rescuer CPR
1) Check for unresponsiveness! ("Hey, hey! Are you OK?")
2) Get someone to get an AED (point to someone directly "You go get the AED")
3) Check for breathing-- look for chest rise
4) Check for a pulse if there is no breathing-- 30 seconds carotid pulse and multiply by two for beats/min.
5) No pulse, no breathing start CPR with chest compressions
6) 30 compressions, in center of chest. Press in 2 inches and allow full recoil of chest. do at a rate of 100 compressions per minuet
7) Do a head-tilt chin-lift to open the airway and give two 1-second breaths (whether it be via mouth to mouth, mouth to mask, or Bag Valve Mask [BVM])
        *if head/spinal injury is suspected do a modified Jaw thrust*
8) continue to do CPR for 2 minuets then check for signs of life (breathing, a pulse, movement, vomiting, etc.)
9) When the AED arrives attach the AED pads-- 1 pad right upper chest, 1 left lower chest
10) Listen to the AED-- it's that simple! ***Make sure NO ONE is touching the patient when the AED is analyzing or shocking***

2-rescuer CPR
2 rescuer CPR is the same as 1-rescuer except 1 person is in charge of Breaths and 1 person is in charge of compressions.
Rotate every 5 cycles of CPR (or every 2 minuets)

Things to remember about CPR...
Push had and push fast!
patient must be on a hard surface!
Allow full recoil of the chest when doing compressions
When giving breaths make the chest rise
The only time you can stop CPR is if...
     You are too tired
     A higher medical authority tells you to stop (ALS, Medics, Nurses, doctors, etc.)
     The patient starts to breath or has a pulse
      There is dependent lividity, or rigor mortis

AED (Automated External defibrillator)
Things to remember for AED's
Do not touch the Patient when AED is analyzing-- The AED will analyze your heart rhythm and not                 give the patient the shock they need

Attach pads to patient, then plug in to AED 

Do not toch the patient when AED is shocking-- The AED will shock you AND the patient and it can kill you

Special considerations for AED
The patient has a hairy chest (shave the chest- AED will usually come with a razor)
The patient's chest is wet- dry the chest and then attach AED
Patient has a pacemaker-- place AED pad above pacemaker (pacemaker will be a visible lump in patient's chest where AED pad should go) 
Patient has medication patch- place AED pad above patch